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PACEs Science

At PACEs Connection, we believe in following the research. In the last few years, researchers have started to examine the impacts of positive childhood experiences (PCEs) on children and adults. We at PACEs Connection are particularly interested in the in

PACEs Science: ACE Study

ACE Study and Related Publications

  • CDC-Kaiser Permanente Adverse Childhood Experiences Study: Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults, 1998
    This is the original ACE study conducted by Drs. Vincent Felitti and Robert Ada.
    [Felitti, V.J., Anda, R.F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D.F., Spitz, A.M., Edwards, V., Koss, M.P., & Marks., J.S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245-258.]
  • CDC-Kaiser Permanente Adverse Childhood Experiences Study Journal Articles by Category, 1998- 2014
    This site provides journal articles produced by the CDC-Kaiser Permanente ACE Study cataloged by topic. The topics are: Commentary/Overview; Chronic Disease; Health Risk Behaviors; Mental Health; Methodological Issues; Reproductive Health/Sexual Behavior; Special Populations; Victimization and Perpetration; Other Health and Social Issues.

  • The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress, 2012
    This report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. 
    [Shonkoff, J.P., Garner, A.S.; Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health; Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent Care; & Section on Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232-e246.]

  • Unpacking the Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adult Mental Health, 2017 
    Exposure to childhood adversity has an impact on adult mental health, increasing the risk for depression and suicide. Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and several adult mental and behavioral health outcomes are well documented in the literature, establishing the need for prevention. The current study analyzes the relationship between an expanded ACE score that includes being spanked as a child and adult mental health outcomes by examining each ACE separately to determine the contribution of each ACE. Data were drawn from Wave II of the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study, consisting of 7465 adult members of Kaiser Permanente in southern California. 
    [Merrick, M.T., Ports, K.A., Ford, D.C., Afifi, T.O., Gershoff, E.T., & Grogan-Kaylord, A. (2017). Unpacking the Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adult Mental Health. Child Abuse & Neglect, 69, 10-19.]

  • Preventing and Mitigating the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) by Building Community Capacity and Resilience: The ACEs Public –Private Initiative Cross-Site Evaluation Findings (2016)
    This report presents final findings of the newly completed ACES Public Private Initiative (APPI) evaluation. This evaluation examined efforts of 5 Washington state communities to reduce toxic stress due to ACEs, build resilience among youth, and improve child and adult well-being.

  • Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Leveraging the Best Available Evidence, 2019 
    This resource from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) helps states and communities leverage the best available evidence to prevent ACEs from happening in the first place as well as lessen harms when ACEs do occur. It features six strategies drawn from the CDC Technical Packages to Prevent Violence.

  • Addressing Childhood Adversity in Violence Prevention Programs journal articles from American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 2022
    Volume 62, Issue 6, Supplement 1S1-S46, June 2022. Edited by Phyllis G. Ottley [Open access]